The marriage for the woman in Islam is Sunnah or Fard?

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Monday, February 24 2014
Last Updated on Monday, March 24 2014 07:59
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There are ayats in the Koran where there is Allah's Command about person’s need of creation the family.  It is told in the 21th ayat of Sura "Rhum":

"And from Allah's signs - that He created from you wives for you that you found calm in them, I established between you mutual love and compassion. Truly, in they are clear signs for people who reflect".

According to this ayat, Allah Supreme created the man and the woman for each other, having shown the favor to them.  Their connection is possible only by a marriage – the nikah which resolves proximity between the man and the woman.  Islam attaches great value to a family.  Nikah is the base for its creation.  Marriage allows to keep moral in society, to bring up healthy generation.  Those men and women who avoid marriage, are inclined to illegal communications that can lead them to punishment both in this life, and in the future.

The prophet (sallahualleyhi wasalam) said:

"Marriage — is my Sunnah. Who avoids my Sunnah, that’s not from my people... " (ibn Madzha, Nikah, 1).

Ibn Abbas (to the radyyallakhu ankhu) noted that heart of the person has no such big satisfaction, pleasure and calm, as in the family.  The prophet (sallyallakhu alleyhi wa salam) addressed to young people:

"... Who has an opportunity to bear responsibility for family creation, let to marry. Because marriage protects eyes and bodies from sinful (kharam). Who has no opportunities for a marriage, let holds a fast. Because the fast for it is a board" (Bukhari, Saum, 43; Nikah 1,3).

Depending on a situation, marriage can be compulsive  (fard, wadjib, Sunnah), and to forbidden (choruses), and undesirable (the makrukh or the mubakh).

a)  Compulsive (fard) marriage is for those who got a danger to fall into a sin, and if the person doesn't marry, will make adultery (Zina).  However he has to have a possibility to pay makhra and support his wife.

b)  For this purpose, who can fall into a sin if doesn't marry, marriage is compulsive too (wadjib).  Everyone, except Hanafiyah, consider that between fard and wadjib there is no difference.

c)  The marriage is Sunnah for those, who isn't inclined to a sin.  Here the person is free in a choice: to marry or not to marry.  According to the imam Shafiya, to find free time for worship to Allah or to pursue science is above the marriage.  Supreme Allah eulogizes the prophet Yakhjyu (alleihissalam) in the Koran:  "He is great and chaste".  In spite of the fact that Yakhjya (alleihissalam) had opportunity to marry, he was awarded praises that kept away from women.

d)  The marriage is forbidden (kharam) for those, about whom it is precisely known that his wife will be got into exclusively severe conditions after marriage.

e) The marriage is resolved as a last resort (makrukh) for the person concerning to whom there are fears that he will oppress his wife.

So, the faithful, who has the opportunity to marry, should do that.

According to the Prophet (sallyallakhu aleihi wa sallam) it is necessary to show consideration for a choice of the future husband/wife to make strong family.  He advised:

"If you like the one, whose religion and temper (akhlakh), asked the permission to marry the one who is in your care, accept it, otherwise there will be the contention (fitna) and big damage in the earth " (Tirmizi, Nikyakh, 3);  "The choise of the wife must be taken by four factors:  her wealth, eminence, beauty and religiousness (piety).  Choose that who observes Sharia... " (Bukhari, Nikyakh, 15; Muslim, Radaa, 53).

Culture (adab) of Islamic wedding

The betrothal is the important process preceding marriage, the announcement of wish to marry a certain woman to her or her family. This can be done by man or can be entrusted to members of the family or other people. If the answer of the girl or her family is positive, it is considered that the betrothal took place. Islam established this custom to let future spouses recognize each other and understand that their decision was weighed and considered. The betrothal is the period of preparation for a wedding. The betrothal isn't the nikyakh, any side can cancel it, but without the essential reason it shouldn’t be done. If the parties presented gifts to each other but engagement is cancelled, gifts should be returned back.

How to do nikah

Nikah can be read in any language which is clear to the groom, the bride, witnesses and the trustee. Before the nikah the khutbah (sermon) must be read about the importance of the correct education of children, about value of a family, responsibility of spouses. It is Sunnah of the Prophet (asallyallahu aleihi wa sallam). During the nikah it is necessary to announce a name of the girl, a name of the groom, names of their fathers, names of witnesses, names of trustees (if there are), a type of mahr and its quantity (mahr is a promise of the man that he will present a gift, chosen by the spouse which can be material (money, things, etc.), and non-material (a certain volume of religious knowledge, a trip to the Hajj, etc.);  mahr isn't wajib;  it is better for bride not to choose too big mahr).  Then the person who is doing the procedure of wedding, addresses to the bride:  "Bismilliakh wa Alya sunnati Rasulillakhi...  Whether you accepted this one as husband for such mahr before witnesses".  The bride answers three times:  "Yes, I accepted".  The similar question is addressed to the groom, and he answers same the bride.  Then Duah is read.  There are many various options to make the proposal and to accept it, it is important to know only that questions to the bride and the groom and their answers have to be in past tense.

After that the Koran and Duah with wishes of strong belief, happiness and wellbeing is read.  At the request of spouses the nikah comes to the end with a festive feast.  The invitation and entertainment of guests are Sunnah of the Prophet (sallyallakhu aleihi wa sallam).

Doctor professor Hamdi Donduren